The material below is from Traffic Safety and the Driver  by Leonard Evans, published March 1991 and now available as paperback from (list price $29.95)

The same and additional topics are treated more comprehensively in

      Published August 2004
        (Copyright 2004 by Leonard Evans)

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Deaths, injuries, and property damage from traffic crashes--their origin and
nature, and ways to prevent their occurrence and reduce their severity-form
the subject of this book. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health
problem in the United States and in other motorized societies; more preretirement
years of life are lost due to traffic crashes than from the combined effects of the
two leading diseases, cancer and heart disease; almost half of the 19-year-olds
who die do so as the result of traffic crashes. This book applies the methods of
science to illuminate the characteristics of this major problem, both by new
analyses and by synthesizing and summarizing the world's research literature on
the subject.

Because at least one driver is involved in every traffic crash, there is consid-
erable focus on the driver. While most subjects of importance in traffic safety
are covered, I have covered in greater depth those areas in which I have myself
performed research; one always learns more by doing, listening and reading than
by just listening and reading. In covering such areas, I have tended to place a
good deal of reliance on my own work, not just because of my intimate knowledge
of it, but because by using it a more unified and coherent treatment is possible.
The goal of quantification that characterizes my published research is one also
striven for in the book. As conclusions, reflecting the essence of what was found
out, are a prime focus of my own research, I have collected the major conclusions
in short sections at the end of most chapters, and also in a short concluding


I have been uniquely fortunate in having the freedom to pursue those research
areas that I considered to be important, fruitful, and intellectually challenging,
unfettered by constraints of writing project proposals defining what I was going
to find out before looking for it. In other words, within the framework of a large
industrial manufacturing company, I have been doing what professors are
ideally supposed to do, but in fact rarely have the opportunity to do in today's


The book presents the results of published research without giving the detailed
computations that led to these results, such details being available in the many
original sources cited. In a few cases where results are available only in this
book, or are not generally available, I have included more mathematical detail.
However, most of the book should be accessible to readers not expert in math-
ematics or statistics.

In only a few cases is it possible to make inferences or arrive at conclusions
that are so assumption free, or based on assumptions so universally accepted,
that there is no possibility of alternative interpretations. This being so, I must
strongly stress that the judgments and opinions in this book are my own, and
do not necessarily reflect those of any other individuals, institutions or organi-
zations with which I am or have been affiliated. The book is an individual effort
written in my own time to express my own thoughts on traffic safety and traffic
safety research, past, present, and future. Although it is my own effort, it
nonetheless depends on the efforts of innumerable professional colleagues, most
of whom I have interacted with directly over the years, and many of whose
contributions are reflected in the references. Even beyond the course of normal
professional interactions, a number of individuals have made a variety of con-
tributions to specific portions of this book. Among them I particularly want to
thank: Wally Albers, Larry Blincoe, Peter Caimey, Bob Campbell, Ken Camp-
bell, Alan Donelson, Kurt Dubowski, Anita Evans, David Evans, Edwin Evans,
Wendy Evans, Gene Farber, Jim Fell, Mike Frick, Ray Fuller, Graham Grayson,
Ann Grimm, Frank Haight, Ezra Hauer, Robin Hertz, Avram Horowitz, Denis
Huguenin, Charles Kahane, Dana Kamerud, Matthijs Koomstra, Murray Mackay,
Robert Mann, Greg Mucha, G6ran Nilsson, Paul Olson, Susan Partyka, Ray-
mond Peck, Brian Repa, Dick Schwing, Marge Shepard, John Siefert, Mike
Sivak, David Sleet, David Viano, V.V. Vlassov, Julian Waller, Patricia Waller,
Paul Wasielewski, Kathy Weber, Kenneth Welty, and Nicholas Wittner.

While expressing gratitude for all the help without which this project would
not have been possible, let me stress that the errors, omissions, and opinions
with which you might disagree are entirely my responsibility, so any blame is
entirely mine.